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Guide to Writing a Basic Essay (simple steps from deciding on a topic to adding the finishing touches)
Writing Tips: Essay Builder WritingDEN (parts of an essay, how to write an essay, types of essays)
General Essay Writing Tips (advanced)
Writing Poetry: Approaches Tips for more advanced poetry writers can be found here:
Literacy Ramp (pdf)
An instructional ramp that provides access to higher literacy levels for AAC users, emphasizing that knowledge of phonological structure and phonological recoding are critical factors in successfully learning to read and write alphabetic languages.
Advancing Literacy for AAC Users’ Rose-Marie Gallagher
Discusses how “Children must master five skill areas if they are to develop strong reading skills: Phonemic awareness (understanding the sounds that make up words), Phonics (letter-sound relationships), Fluency, Vocabulary and Comprehension.”
The Beginning Literacy Framework (pdf) Erickson, Musselwhite, & Ziolkowski in partnership with Don Johnston Inc., 2002. Describes the three types of text that are necessary for moving readers with disabilities past the emergent literacy level - Enrichment, Transitional and Conventional.
Comprehensive Literacy Instruction for Older Students By Karen Erickson, David Koppenhaver, Penny Hatch, ISAAC 2006 Preconference
Fostering Emergent Literacy for Children Who Require AAC (pdf) Light, J. C., & Kent-Walsh, J. (2003, May 27). The ASHA Leader, 8, pp. 4-5, 28-29.
LITERACY 101: Getting Started with Literacy for Your AAC Students Caroline Musselwhite. Identifies literacy materials for children with CCN who are emergent readers and includes basic strategies for literacy instruction.
Literacy for Children Who Use AAC Part 2: Reading Independently and Writing: The Other Part of Literacy by Robin Hurd Click on ‘Current Column’ or ‘Archives’ to read more articles.
Literacy in Ireland Smith, M. (2007, Aug. 14). Literacy in
Maximizing the Literacy Skills of Individuals who Require AAC by Janice Light, Ph.D., Penn State University. Discusses effective evidence-based practices to maximize the literacy skills of people who use AAC. Illustrates effective interventions to help students who require AAC: (a) acquire phonological awareness skills, (b) learn to read words, (c) participate in shared reading activities with personalized books, and (d) write their own stories.
Rhyme, Rhythm & Repetition
Information on how to use those transitional story features (and when NOT to), to support emergent readers.
Stories in a New York Minute Includes useful writing tips
Teaching Strategies to Support Inclusive Instruction in Reading and Language Arts By Karen Erickson & Pati King DeBaun The document was developed to support the inclusion of children with severe physical and/or communication impairments general education classrooms. The strategies are meant to suggest one way to support students in an inclusive reading and language arts program.
Using AAC to Build Literacy in the Home Pam Harris
Here are some links to free resources for interactive online word building found at “Read Strong: Website for Students':
Magnetic Word Board (interactive) - students can make words using an online "magnetic" board. One of the boards is blank and customisable. You can not save your changes, but you can see and manipulate chunks of words onscreen.
Starfall Make-a-Word - Emerging readers select a word family and use picture cues to build words.
They can also read online books that correspond to each word family.
Word Build -- Students build words after selecting a word family. Students can print out the words that they build and use the printout to make a word sort.
Word family sort: interactive activity for kids (short vowels)
Commercial resources referenced in the articles above
Don Johnston Incorporated (Including Start to Finish Literacy Starters and Word Builder)
Literacy Through Unity from PRI
MeVille to WeVille from AbleNet, Inc.
Please contact us at email@example.com if you want to share any ideas or materials related to AAC and Literacy in your country!
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